Shakespeare's Romans: Politics and Ethics in Julius Caesar and Coriolanus

Hana Layson with Amelia Zurcher

What is the context for Shakespeare’s Roman plays? What were his sources? Why did classical Rome capture the interest of people in Renaissance England?

Introduction

When William Shakespeare first staged his Roman tragedies Julius Caesar (1599) and Coriolanus (c. 1608), he did not introduce his audience to new stories. Rather, he reworked characters and events with which most of his audience would have been familiar. For many people in Renaissance England, the ancient Roman republic did not seem remote or exotic. Instead, it served as an important precedent in politics and history, one which had bearing on events and people in Britain.

The similarities between seventeenth-century England and classical Rome may not be obvious to twenty-first-century readers. The English were governed by a monarch, or individual ruler, and had been for as long as people could remember. The Roman republic was founded in 509 BCE with the overthrow of the Etruscan king, Tarquin the Proud, and the rebels’ oath to make the people free of tyranny. The republican government, which lasted for almost 500 years, included three principal institutions: the Senate (300 members of the aristocracy who held life-long posts); the tribunes of the people (two powerful officials who represented the poor citizens, or plebeians); and the consuls (two men elected by the Senate and approved by the plebeians). During the republic’s final decades, there was also a dictator, the position that Julius Caesar held at the time of his assassination.

For many people in Renaissance England, the ancient Roman republic did not seem remote or exotic. Instead, it served as an important precedent in politics and history.

Yet these differences in political structure are not quite as firm as they appear. As the scholar Oliver Arnold explains, “England was a ‘mixed-estate’ rather than an absolute monarchy.” The monarch had to obtain the consent of Parliament, including the House of Lords and the House of Commons, in order “to levy certain kinds of taxes and enact certain kinds of law.” Early modern writers frequently compared the English Parliament to the Roman republic’s Senate and popular tribunate. The English were also mindful of Rome’s role in their early history: Julius Caesar successfully invaded Britain in 54 BCE and the Roman Empire, which succeeded the republic, controlled Britain from 77 to 407 CE. At the broader level of political culture, English people strongly identified themselves as “free” in ways that (they believed) citizens of the Roman republic had been and others in Europe were not. They accepted that they were subject to a monarch, but they drew a distinction between the just ruler and the tyrant.

Shakespeare’s representations of rebellion in classical Rome also resonated with political turmoil in the England in which he lived. Henry VIII had established the Church of England, and made himself head, in 1534. In the century that followed, Catholic conspirators repeatedly tried—or were accused of trying—to regain control of the crown, while Protestant rulers worked to consolidate the national Church of England. Elizabeth I, who ruled Britain from 1558 to 1603, thwarted numerous attempts to depose her and install Mary, Queen of Scots, as the ruler of England. Even in her final years, Elizabeth faced a small (nonreligious) insurrection led by her former favorite, the Earl of Essex. Because Elizabeth had no heirs, the question of who would succeed her was the source of considerable anxiety and political jockeying at the turn of the century. When James I assumed the throne in 1603, he alleged three major plots to overthrow him in just the first three years of his reign.

Shakespeare’s Romans may not speak to Christian religious conflicts, but they certainly raise questions about the consequences of political overthrow, the motives of conspirators, the effects of charismatic individual leadership, the obligations of virtuous citizenship, and the roles of the people and the aristocracy in government. In short, Julius Caesar and Coriolanus explore issues that would have resonated strongly with Shakespeare’s contemporaries. The documents that follow develop the context for Shakespeare’s Roman plays. They include excerpts from his primary source on classical Rome, representations of Rome by other Renaissance writers, and, finally, interpretations of Shakespeare’s characters by artists from later centuries.

Please consider the following questions as you review the documents

• How did Shakespeare’s contemporaries represent classical Rome? What relationships do they suggest between ancient Rome and Renaissance England? Which issues does Rome seem to raise for Renaissance writers or allow them to explore?

• In what ways do Shakespeare’s plays reinforce or differ from other Renaissance representations of Rome? Which issues does he call attention to, revise, or adapt in his retelling of Roman history?

• How did artists portray Shakespeare’s characters in the centuries that followed the original staging of Julius Caesar and Coriolanus? What about these plays seems to have mattered most to subsequent audiences?

Shakespeare's Sources

Plutarch was a Greek writer who lived from approximately 46–120 CE. His most influential work traces the biographies and moral characters of famous Greeks and Romans. Latin editions of this work, known as Parallel Lives or Plutarch’s Lives, were published in Europe during the 1400s. The French writer Jacques Amyot translated it into French in the 1560s, and Thomas North translated this version into English in 1579, when it was published in London. North’s translation was enormously influential at the time and is considered in itself a significant work of sixteenth-century English literature. It was Shakespeare’s primary source for his Roman plays, Julius Caesar, Antony and Cleopatra, and Coriolanus. The following passages were taken from Plutarch and North’s accounts of the lives of Coriolanus and Mark Antony (Antonius), who led the people against Julius Caesar’s assassins.

Questions to Consider

  1. How does Plutarch/North introduce Coriolanus? What information about Coriolanus’ family and childhood seemed worth including?

  2. Describe Coriolanus’ moral character based on this account. What are his virtues and his weaknesses?

  3. Compare Plutarch/North’s portrait of Coriolanus to Shakespeare’s. What differences and similarities do you notice between the two accounts? Is Coriolanus an admirable figure in Plutarch’s Lives or Shakespeare’s play? Is he sympathetic? Cite examples from the texts to support your claims.

  4. Consider Plutarch/North’s description Antonius’ actions following Caesar’s murder. What do these actions reveal about Antonius’ character?

  5. Compare Plutarch/North’s representation of Antonius to Shakespeare’s Antony in Julius Caesar, particularly in Act III. What differences and similarities do you notice? How does Shakespeare build on and develop Plutarch/North’s account?

“The Life of Caius Martius Coriolanus”

Plutarch and Thomas North. From The Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romanes, 1579.

Image of The Life of Caius Martius Coriolanus

Thomas North’s translation of Plutarch’s Lives was Shakespeare’s primary source for his Roman plays. This excerpt introduces the biography of Coriolanus.

Image of The Life of Caius Martius Coriolanus
Metadata Details
Item Type Book Section
Title The Life of Caius Martius Coriolanus
Short Title Plutarch's Life of Coriolanus, 1579
Book Title The Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romanes
Place of Publication London
Creator Plutarch and Thomas North
Publication Date 1579
Pages pp. 237–238
Call Number Case Y 642 .P6526
Location Special Collections 4th floor

“The Life of Marcus Antonius”

Plutarch and Thomas North. From The Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romanes, 1579.

Image of The Life of Marcus Antonius

Thomas North’s translation of Plutarch’s Lives was Shakespeare’s primary source for his Roman plays. This excerpt portrays Mark Antony’s actions following the assassination of Julius Caesar.

Metadata Details
Item Type Book Section
Title The Life of Marcus Antonius
Short Title Plutarch's Life of Marcus Antonius, 1579
Book Title The Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romanes
Place of Publication London
Creator Plutarch and Thomas North
Publication Date 1579
Pages p. 976
Call Number Case Y 642 .P6526
Location Special Collections 4th floor

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The Geography of Ancient Rome

Abraham Ortelius was a sixteenth-century Flemish scholar and geographer who lived in Antwerp, a city in present-day Belgium. He embarked on a project to gather together the collected knowledge of sixteenth-century cartography and, in 1570, published the first modern world atlas Theatrum orbis terrarium, or “The Theater of the Whole World.” This first edition included 70 maps, each accompanied by a page of explanatory text, as well as the names of the 33 cartographers and 87 geographers whose work Ortelius had consulted. The atlas was an immediate success, praised by scholars and kings throughout Europe. It was translated from its original Latin into the major vernacular, or spoken, languages of Europe. Thirty-four editions were published from 1570 to 1612, often with the addition of new maps and references. The English edition was printed in London in 1606. While many of the Theatrum maps portrayed the contemporary world, some were historical. The map reproduced here represents the ancient Roman Empire. A translation of the Latin text of the lower left cartouche appears with the map, below. The upper left cartouche portrays the Roman poet, Tibullus, with the quote, “Rome, your race is destined to rule the world.” The upper right cartouche portrays Romulus, the founder of Rome. The genealogical tree on the lower right shows the seven Roman kings who ruled until the founding of the republic. The kings’ names appear in the central line of double circles with Romulus at the top and Tarquin the Proud (Tarquinius Superbus) at the bottom. Their wives and children are represented by the lesser lines and circles along the sides.

Questions to Consider

  1. Examine the frontispiece of Ortelius’ Theatre of the Whole World. How does this page, with its symbolic figures, serve to introduce the work? What does it suggest about Ortelius’ ambitions for the book?

  2. Describe Ortelius’ map of the Roman Empire. What information does it provide about ancient Rome? Why do you think Ortelius included such brilliant colors and elaborate decorations? What do these features suggest about the meaning of maps in Renaissance Europe?

  3. How do the text boxes, the portraits, the family tree, and the other illustrations relate to the geographic representation of continents and seas?

  4. Which political or national entities does the map identify? What kinds of information does the map leave out?

  5. The lower left cartouche (translated below) offers “a short list of the origins, growth, and culmination of the Roman Empire” from the first king through the last emperors. How does the map visually convey this history? Why do you think the Roman republic, which existed between the time of the kings and the emperors, receives so little attention?

  6. What does Ortelius’ map suggest about sixteenth-century European perceptions of ancient Rome?

“Image of the Roman Empire”

Abraham Ortelius. From Theatrum orbis terrarium (The Theatre of the Whole World), 1606.

Image of Image of the Roman Empire

Frontispiece of Abraham Ortelius’ Theatre of the Whole World, the first modern world atlas.

Image of Image of the Roman Empire

Romanii imperii imago. Map of the ancient Roman Empire from Abraham Ortelius’ Theatre of the Whole World, the first modern world atlas.

(lower left cartouche) A short list of the origins, growth and culmination of the Roman Empire: At first, under the seven kings called Romulus, Servius etc., the Roman Empire extended for 243 years no further than to Portus and Ostia within a radius of 18 miles. However, under the consuls, in some cases including dictators, groups of ten men, and military tribunes, Italy has been conquered in 447 years all the way beyond the river Po; Africa and Spain have been subdued, Gallia and Britannia have been conquered; the Illyrians, Histrians, Liburnians and Dalmatians have been overrun; Greece has been invaded, the Macedonians have been beaten; wars have been waged against the Dardanians, the Mœsians and the Thracians; the Danube has been reached and the Romans have made their first conquests in Asia by winning Antiochus; When Mithridates had been defeated they occupied the kingdom of Pontus and at the same time the smaller province of Armenia, which was under his rule. The Romans proceeded to Mesopotamia and struck a treaty with the Parths. They entered into combat with the Carduanians, Saracenes and Arabs. They conquered all of Judea. They brought Cilicia and Syria under their rule. Finally, they invaded Egypt. However, when the emperors ruled, that is to say from the time of divine Augustus until the time of Theodosius the Great and his sons Honorius and Arcadius, they brought under their rule in the course of 440 years the Cantabrians, the Asturians, and all the rest of Spain. The coastal areas, the Alps, Coccia and Rhetia, Noricum, Pannonia and Moesia have augmented their power. The entire Danube area has been divided into provinces. The entire Pontus, Greater Armenia, Assyria, Arabia and Egypt have come under Roman law, and thus, thanks to the exertions of their commanders, and through the valiant behaviour of the Roman population, and in immortal glory, they have attained the highest stage for this most elevated empire, of which the borders in the West are the ocean, in the North the Rhine and the Danube, in the East the Tigris, and in the South the Atlas mountain range. All this is shown on this map for the benefit of those studying history.

(lower center right cartouche) We have taken this genealogy of the seven kings from Livius, Dionysius and Plutarchus, for the benefit of those who have an interest in Roman history. The main line of descent indicates the kings, the lesser lines their wives, and the smallest line their sons and daughters. Double circles indicate males, single circles females.

Translated by Marcel van den Broecke and Deborah van den Broecke-Günzburger, Cartographica Neerlandica (www.orteliusmaps.com/book/ort187.html).

Metadata Details
Item Type Book Section
Title Image of the Roman Empire
Publication Title Theatrum orbis terrarium (The Theatre of the Whole World)
Short Title Map of the Roman Empire, 1606
Book Title Theatrum orbis terrarium (The Theatre of the Whole World)
Place of Publication London
Creator Abraham Ortelius
Publication Date 1606
Call Number VAULT oversize Ayer 135 .O7 1606, [plate 122] (PrCt)
Location Special Collections 4th floor

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Classical Rome and Renaissance England

Sir Thomas Smith was a political and legal theorist as well as a member of Parliament in the mid-sixteenth century. His De Republica Anglorum, or “Of the English Republic,” was published in 1583, posthumously, or after his death. The scholar Oliver Arnold notes that the “treatise quickly became one of the most important and frequently invoked accounts of English political and legal institutions.” Throughout the work, Smith refers to classical Rome—as opposed to other European countries—in order to describe English institutions. In the first chapter, Smith identifies three kinds of commonwealth: monarchy (rule by an individual); aristocracy (rule by a small number); and democracy (rule by the “multitude”). In the passages reproduced below, Smith distinguishes between just and unjust rulers in all three forms of government and considers whether it may ever be right for citizens to overthrow their rulers. Samuel Daniel was a respected poet and playwright whose works influenced Shakespeare. His long poem, The Civile Wars, offers a history of the War of the Roses, the conflict between the English dynasties of Lancaster and York between 1455 and 1485. In the passages reproduced below, Daniel compares the Battle of Towton, which the Yorkist army won, to Julius Caesar’s defeat of Pompey at Pharsalus in 48 BC. (Pompey was allied with Cato and the Senate.) In this passage, the poet is addressing his muse. Together, these works by Smith and Daniel suggest how profoundly Renaissance understandings of Roman history informed English writers’ sense of their own nation’s history and identity.

Questions to Consider

  1. According to Smith, what is the difference between just and unjust government? Are citizens obligated to obey their rulers? In what situations, if any, are citizens right to overthrow their ruler? Does Smith seem to endorse such an act?

  2. How does Smith use examples from classical Rome to illustrate his points? What interpretations does he offer of figures such as Brutus, Cassius, and Julius Caesar?

  3. Why does Daniel refer to “rage” and “madness” in the Battle of Towton? What are the English fighting for?

  4. How does Daniel portray the Romans? What motivates their conflict?

  5. Does Daniel identify greater honor or nobility in either the English or the Roman causes? Why?

  6. Taking these two texts together, what conclusions can you draw about the meaning of classical Rome to Renaissance English writers? What is the role of Rome in these writers’ representations of English history and identity?

De Republica Anglorum: The Maner of Government or Policie of the Realme of England

Thomas Smith. 1583.

Image of De Republica Anglorum: The Maner of Government or Policie of the Realme of England

Sir Thomas Smith was a political and legal theorist and member of Parliament. This passage illustrates how understandings of classical Rome influenced sixteenth-century English political theory.

Image of De Republica Anglorum: The Maner of Government or Policie of the Realme of England

Chapter 3, “An other division of common wealthes,” and Chapter 4, “Example of chaunges in the maner of government.”

Transcript of the English text. Greek and Latin phrases have not been included.

Chapter 3.

But this matter yet taketh an other doubt; for of these manner of rulings by one, by the fewer part, & by the multitude or greater number, they which have more methodically & more distinctly & perfectly written upon them, doe make a substitution: and dividing eche into two, make the one good and just, and the other evill and unjust: as, where one ruleth, the one they call a king, the other a tyrant: where the fewer number, the one they name a government of the best men, the other of the usurping of a few Gentlemen, or a few of the richer & stronger sort: and where the multitude doth governe, the one where they call a common wealth by the generall name, or the rule of the people, the other the rule of the usurping of the popular or rascall and viler sort, because they be more in number.

Chapter 4

In common wealthes which have had long continuance, the diversities of times have made all these manners of ruling or government to be seene: As in Rome, kinges Romulus, Numa, and Servius: tyrantes, Tarquinius, Sylla, Caesar: the rule of best men, as in time when the first Consuls were: and the usurping of a few, as of the Senators after the death of Tarquinius, and before the succession of the Tribunate, and manifestly in the Decemvirate, but more perniciously in the Triumvirate of Caesar, Crassus, and Pompeius: and afterwarde in the Triumvirate of Octavius, Antonius, and Lepidus: The common wealth and rule of the people, as in the expulsing

Image of De Republica Anglorum: The Maner of Government or Policie of the Realme of England

Chapter 4 (cont.) “Example of chaunges in the maner of government,” and Chapter 5, “Of the question of what is right and just in everie common wealth.”

Transcript of the English text. Greek and Latin phrases have not been included.

Chapter 4 (cont.) of the decemviri and long after, especially after the law was made, either by Horatius, or (as some would have it) Hortentius. And the ruling and usurping of the popular and rascall, as a little before Sylla his reigne, and a little before Caius Cesars reigne. For the usurping of the rascality can never long endure, but necessarily breedeth, & quickly bringeth forth a tyrant. Of this, both Athens, Syracuse, Lacedemon, and other old auncient ruling Cities had experience, and a man neede not doubt but that other common wealthes have followed the same fate. For the nature of man is never to stand still in one manner of estate, but to grow from the lesse to the more, and decay from the more againe to the lesse, till it come to the fatall end and destruction, with many turns and turmoyles of sicknesse & recovering, seldome standing in perfect health, neither of a man’s body it selfe, nor of the politique bodie which is compact of the same.

Chapter 5

So when the common wealth is evill governed by an evill ruler and unjust (as in the three last named which be rather a sicknesse of the politique bodie than perfect & good estates) if the laws be made, as most like they be always to maintaine that estate: the question remaineth whether the obedience of them be just, and the disobedience wrong: the profit and conservation of that estate right and justice, or the dissolution: and whether a good and upright man, and lover of his countrie ought to maintaine and obey them, or to seeke by all meanes to abolish them, which great & hautie courages have often attempted: as Dion to rise up against Dionysius, Thrasibulus against ther tyrantes, Brutus and Cassius against Caesar, which hath been cause of many commotions in common wealthes, whereof the judgement of the common people is according to the event and successe: of them which be learned, according to the purpose of the doers, and the estate of the time then present. Certaine it is that it is alwayes a doubtfull and hazardous matter to meddle with the chaunging of the laws and government, or to disobey the orders of the rule or government, which a man doth finde alreadie established.

Metadata Details
Item Type Book
Title De Republica Anglorum: The Maner of Government or Policie of the Realme of England
Short Title Of the English Republic, 1583
Place of Publication London
Publisher H. Midleton for G. Seton
Creator Thomas Smith
Publication Date 1583
Number of Pages Title page and pp. 3–5
Call Number Case J 445 .8238
Location Special Collections 4th floor

The Civile Wares: Between the Houses of Lancaster and Yorke

Samuel Daniel. 1609.

Image of The Civile Wares: Between the Houses of Lancaster and Yorke

Samuel Daniel was a respected poet and playwright whose works influenced Shakespeare. In this passage, he evokes examples from classical Rome to criticize the fifteenth-century English War of the Roses.

Metadata Details
Item Type Book
Title The Civile Wares: Between the Houses of Lancaster and Yorke
Short Title The Civile Wares, 1609
Place of Publication London
Publisher Simon Watersonne
Creator Samuel Daniel
Publication Date 1609
Number of Pages pp. 204–205
Call Number Case Y 185 .D2238
Location Special Collections 4th floor

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Imagining Shakespeare's Romans

These illustrations of scenes from Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar and Coriolanus were published in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, long after Shakespeare’s death. They offer insight into the significance of these plays for later audiences. The first two engravings and title pages appear in Bell’s Edition of Shakespeare’s Plays, an elaborate nine-volume set of Shakespeare’s plays that was published in London. In the introduction to Julius Caesar, the editor John Bell praises the play for addressing “the spirit of Liberty” and “the love of our country,” and expresses the wish that modern “Senators” (i.e., members of Parliament) would read it annually. Bell writes less favorably of Coriolanus, suggesting that the protagonist’s heroism is “of a rather savage kind” that “does not touch the heart.” The representation of Act V, scene iii, in Coriolanus is part of a later collection of large illustrations of scenes from Shakespeare’s plays. The London printer and engraver, John Boydell, commissioned artists to create paintings of the scenes, which he then reproduced as engravings and published together with the plays in 1803.

Questions to Consider

  1. Describe the illustration of Caesar’s ghost appearing to Brutus in Act IV, scene iii, of Julius Caesar. Why do you think the editor John Bell chose this scene to represent the play? What is the significance of the scene to the play as a whole?

  2. Examine Bell’s frontispiece to Coriolanus. It shows Act II, scene iii, in which Coriolanus is asked to show his wounds to the citizens of Rome. Is this engraving an accurate representation of Shakespeare’s text?

  3. Examine each of the figures in the engraving of Act V, Scene iii, in which Volumnia pleads with Coriolanus to spare the city of Rome. Describe the postures, gestures, and facial expressions of the figures in this engraving. How does the artist interpret this scene?

  4. Taken together, what do these illustrations suggest about eighteenth- and early-nineteenth-century interpretations of both Shakespeare’s plays and classical Rome?  

“Julius Caesar”

William Shakespeare. From Bell's Edition of Shakespeare's Plays: As They Are Now Performed at the Theatres Royal in London, 1774.

Image of Julius Caesar

Frontispiece and title page of Julius Caesar from an eighteenth-century, nine-volume set of Shakespeare’s plays.

Metadata Details
Item Type Book Section
Title Julius Caesar
Publication Title Bell's Editionof Shakespeare's Plays: As They Are Now Performed at the Theatres Royal in London
Short Title Julius Caesar, 1774
Book Title Bell's Edition of Shakespeare's Plays: As They Are Now Performed at the Theatres Royal in London
Place of Publication London
Publisher John Bell and C. Etherington at York
Creator William Shakespeare
Publication Date 1774
Volume Vol. 5
Pages frontispiece and title page
Call Number Case PR2752 .B4 1774
Location Special Collections 4th floor

“Coriolanus”

William Shakespeare. From Bell's Edition of Shakespeare's Plays: As They Are Now Performed at the Theatres Royal in London, 1774.

Image of Coriolanus

Frontispiece and title page of Coriolanus from an eighteenth-century, nine-volume set of Shakespeare’s plays.

Metadata Details
Item Type Book Section
Title Coriolanus
Publication Title Bell's Edition of Shakespeare's Plays: As They Are Now Performed at the Theatres Royal in London
Short Title Coriolanus, 1774
Book Title Bell's Edition of Shakespeare's Plays: As They Are Now Performed at the Theatres Royal in London
Place of Publication London
Publisher John Bell and C. Etherington at York
Creator William Shakespeare
Publication Date 1774
Volume Vol. 5
Pages frontispiece and title page
Call Number Case PR2752 .B4 1774
Location Special Collections 4th floor

“Coriolanus. Act 5. Scene 3”

G. Hamilton and J. Caldwell. From A Collection of Prints, from Pictures Painted for the Purpose of Illustrating the Dramatic Works of Shakespeare, by John Boydell. 1803.

Image of Coriolanus. Act 5. Scene 3

Volumnia pleads with Coriolanus to spare the city of Rome in this large engraving from an 1803 collection of prints illustrating scenes from Shakespeare’s plays.

Metadata Details
Item Type Book Section
Title Coriolanus. Act 5. Scene 3
Publication Title A Collection of Prints, from Pictures Painted for the Purpose of Illustrating the Dramatic Works of Shakespeare
Short Title Coriolanus, Act 5, Scene 3, 1803
Book Title A Collection of Prints, from Pictures Painted for the Purpose of Illustrating the Dramatic Works of Shakspeare
Place of Publication London
Publisher John and Josiah Boydell
Creator G. Hamilton and J. Caldwell
Publication Creator John Boydell
Publication Date 1803
Volume Vol. 2
Pages Plate XXIX
Call Number Case oversize YS 65 .11
Location Special Collections 4th floor

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Selected Sources

Arnold, Oliver O. “Chronology” and “Republicanism, Popular Politics, and the Rhetoric of Liberty in 1599.” In Julius Caesar, by William Shakespeare. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, 2010. xlv-liv, 160–181.

Bliss, Lee. “Introduction.” In Coriolanus, by William Shakespeare. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2000. 27–41.

Karrow, Robert W. Mapmakers of the Sixteenth Century and Their Maps: Bio-Bibliographies of the Cartographers of Abraham Ortelius, 1570: Based on Leo Bagrow’s a. Ortelii Catalogus Cartographorum. Chicago: Speculum Orbis Press, 1993.

Koks, Frans. “Ortelius Atlas.” Library of Congress. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/gmdhtml/gnrlort.html.

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Digital collection produced in conjunction with the Teachers as Scholars seminar, “Shakespeare, Rome, and Modernity: Exploring Politics and Ethics in Julius Caesar and Coriolanus,” on October 18-19, 2012.

This collection was last updated